This article is about the Pharaonic civilization. If you are looking for a neighborhood of ancient Egypt, see Ancient Egypt (Cairo).
Mask of Tutankhamun Golden
Civilization of the ancient Egyptians or the Pharaonic civilization is a civilization which, in Egypt under the rule of different families since the dawn of pharaonic history, even the Roman invasion of Egypt over 3000 years.
1 A brief history of ancient Egypt
[Edit] A brief history of ancient Egypt
Since 250 thousand years BC. M. In prehistoric times, Egypt was a haven of primitive man, who was trapped animals, where the region in the far south at the Nuba rich weed.
Since 35 thousand years BC. M. Exposed the region to halt desertification, which is rainfall, creating agricultural communities in central Egypt and the Delta in the north. And the first civilization of Egypt in the Badari in Upper Egypt is based on farming, fishing, and breeding birds, livestock, pottery and mining.
In the year 4000 BC. M. Appeared irrigation systems and Egypt became small tribal kingdoms of Upper Egypt was symbolized by the white crown of Lower Egypt, and symbolized by the crown and Red King Menes united the two countries from the South since 3200 BC. M, capital of Memphis (Memphis). Such standardization will make Egypt a safe country and its capital, Memphis, and this is evident through the many records maintained by the dry weather to be saved message across time and the successive verses on papyrus.
1 - 2
3 - 4 - 5 - 6
The first transition
7 - 8 - 9 - 10 --
11 (Thebes only)
11 (All Egypt)
Transition period seconds
13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17
The modern state
18 - 19 - 20
Third period of transition
21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25
26 - 27 - 28
29 - 30 - 31
Btalmp - The Empire Romanian
Stages of the history of Egypt
The ancient Egyptians
Join Achaemenid Egypt
Egypt's history of Greek and Romanian
Islamic history of Egypt
Join Mamluk Egypt
Date of Ottoman Egypt
History of Egypt top
Join the Republic of Egypt
A thorough history is installed to the march of this nation through different times and centuries, we find, such as that written by Manetho in the Covenant Ptolemaic:
Division of the history of Egypt for thirty families until the arrival of Alexander the Great, Egypt, and this history has gaps overlooked by the periods of many of the rulers of Egypt. See: Manetho.
Under the ruler of Egypt makes it divinity since the unification of Msraam 3200 years BC. M. Even the Roman occupation of Egypt.
2772 BC. M. Egyptians knew that a calendar year, 365 days.
2700 BC. M. King Djoser built his pyramid on pyramid known Saqqara.
2560 BC. M. King Khufu built the Great Pyramid, which has been the highest building in the world until the 13 th century.
2050 BC. Became a good Luxor during the Middle Kingdom capital of Egypt.
2000 BC. M. Egypt tamed cats to hunt snakes and progress in astronomy and prediction paid off at the flood.
1786 BC. M. Hyksos who came to Egypt as traders and proceeding in the turbulent century before, occupying the north of Egypt and Istkdmon horse and the wheel and a strong influence due to internal problems in Egypt.
1600 BC. M. Revolution against the Hyksos in Upper Egypt it spread all over Egypt.
1560 BC. M. Ahmose expelled the Hyksos and the rest of the Asian tribes, founding the modern state and Egypt became a colonial state and took over most of the ancient world.
1500 BC. M. Used pallets.
1425 BC. M. Reign of Thutmose III ruled Egypt and founded the Egyptian empire, or what is described as the modern state
1375 BC. M. Akhenaten and Monotheism invitation to transfer the capital from Thebes to Tel el-Amarna and the prevention of sun worship, which led to the disintegration of large parts of the Egyptian empire
1271 BC. M. King Ramses II fought the rebels Alhethein and win them in the Battle of Kadesh
1285 BC. M. King of the Hittites held a peace treaty with Ramses II is the first peace treaty in history blog
1236 BC. M. King Merneptah, Pharaoh of Egypt (1236 1223), repels an attack the Sea Peoples and Libyans indicated in its records that it had attacked (Israel) and spent in the (1231)
1167 BC. M the death of Ramses III (1198 1167) Last Pharaohs of Egypt bones and a weak central state, priests, and rulers of the provinces control over Egypt and the start of the pharaonic era of the third decay
750 BC. M. King King Kashta Nubia conquers Egypt and Pharaoh and declare himself the son of the god Amun.
671 BC. M. Assyrians occupy Egypt and serving the Nubian Dynasty Assyrian occupation of Egypt.
661 BC. M. The expulsion of the Assyrians, the Egyptians at the hands of Psammetik first.
601 BC. M pharaoh Necho II repel invasion Babylonian Babylonian-Egyptian War
525 BC. M. Alakmignon invade Egypt and ruled it for the year 405 BC.
405 BC. M. Expulsion of the Egyptians to the Persians at the hands of Imereti
343 BC. M. Persians occupied Egypt once again until 332 BC.
332 BC. M. Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and founded Alexandria.
305 BC. M. The reign of the Ptolemies.
30 BC. M. Cleopatra commit suicide - the end of the Ptolemies and the beginning of Roman rule.
AD 330 Roman Byzantine rule of Egypt.
639 m into Islam in Egypt after 20 years of his appearance in Mecca.
Main article: History of Ancient Egypt
Were not the ancient Egyptian civilization civilized slip at the age of time. Because their civilization was their characteristics individually cultural and monumental achievements and originality. This is what gave it the credibility of the authenticity of all civilizations. Or making it the undisputed world civilizations. This civilization Mkutha and more impressed and well known of the ancient civilizations. We have carried civilization ancient Egyptians The Ancient Egyptians Civilization along the Nile River in northeast Africa since the year 5000 BC. M. To the year 30 BC. M. . It is the longest civilization Asnmrrarip the old world, and is intended the ancient Egyptian civilization in terms of geography that civilization, which originated in the valley and the Nile Delta, where he lived the ancient Egyptians. Culturally, the word civilization of their language and rituals, traditions, and organization to their lives and manage their own life, administrative, and their perception of the nature around them and dealing with the neighboring peoples, the first people Astons cats.
The Nile River, which is the civilization of the ancient Egyptians Npa over the hills of Ethiopia in East Africa and the headwaters of the Nile in southern Sudan heading north from the Sudan to Egypt to the flood comes every year to feed the soil with clay. This phenomenon is made of natural flood Egypt's economy was growing renewable dependent mainly on agriculture. It helped at the emergence of civilization is also free of clouds and sky brightness of the sun supervisory almost throughout the year to provide the ancient Egyptians Ialdfou and light. Egypt is also protected from neighbors to the west desert and the sea from the north and east, and the presence of waterfalls (reef) in the south of heart on the Nile, making it to the ground almost deserted. In this land back two of the Seven Wonders. The two pyramids at Giza and the Lighthouse of Alexandria. The oldest archaeological site plant heart. The years since 6000 a grazing area by the summer rains fall grazing cattle even since 4899 years ago, when it declined by rain. Discovered by the stone circles were the Scanbp communities in the region, including the village was fed by 18 wells of water beneath the surface of tiles Mijuleci build a large statue of a cow-like sculpture of a large rock. The village consists of 18 beta. And the cemetery where many of the cattle were found on structures in the rooms of the mud. This indicates that people who worship cows. Found stoves were used. And bones of deer and hares and sherd pottery and decorated ostrich egg shells. But there is no landfill or remnants of humanity in the plant. This indicates that the Bedouins were nomads come to plant every summer, where water and pasture. And marriage and trade and the establishment of religious rituals.
In the field of astronomy, we find that the ancient Egyptians had set up oldest observatory in the world and before the era of pyramid-building since the period of time by the sun and the stars, where they established evidence stone Mijalithat Megaliths. It is a circle of stone erected since 7000 years in the southern desert in Egypt. Almijalithat before the establishment of sites in England, Britain and Europe a thousand years as the site's famous Stonehenge.
The plant site was discovered several years ago and consists of a small stone circle. Lübbe bones of cattle and five lines of stones and tiles slash Ahadjrbp disclosed slash a mile from the site and some at altitudes of 9 feet. All Tile buried soil above the rock is flat. This site appears to have the four cardinal points and determines the solar equinox. The Active Service by the small stone cattle bones and five lines of Mijulithat italics. This site has been built on the shore of Lake congregate in rain water in summer time. Where herds of cattle driven to the plant in the Neolithic period since 10 thousand years. The nomadic herdsmen come to in the rainy season even since the year 4800 declined by as monsoon towards South Ghellab to become barren region. This was the small circle diameter of 12 feet with four groups of tiles list where you can see the horizon. The two groups put faith to the north and south and groups Alochritan put faith on the horizon Equinox solar saving time. The descendants after 2000 years have been displaced for the Nile Valley and established the ancient Egyptian civilization, particularly after Oagafrat this area of pastoral and climate change. And settled in the year 4000 BC. M. Upper Egypt, especially in the old Nizhne Naqada and Abydos (see: Badari). This spatial stability of the ancient Egyptians made their culture and creativity Mdnithm on their land. Wares science, literature and traditions and customs, literature and stories and legends and left after them, recording a mural on a papyrus manuscript, and to inculcate such innovative civilization. Vcedoa Kalohramat large buildings, temples and tombs, which has defied time. In addition to manuscripts, drawings, Anakouchet and colorful pictures, which remained until today.
They were treated papyrus as to create the kind Atmarh him, and wrote their own history, science, customs and traditions to be a message to their grandchildren and the world. They were written on, in the hieroglyphic writing is graphic in which the symbol reflects the image are known. And devised concepts in arithmetic, geometry and studied medicine, dentistry and worked their calendar according to their observations of the sun and the stars. Although the ancient Egyptians who worship many gods, but the divine invitation reunification emerged at the hands of King Akhenaten feature of belief. They are also the first to Souroaptda faith life in the Hereafter. These concepts were not found at other peoples. And built and decorated the graves decorated term occupancy and have to live by the eternal existence. Egypt was the superpower in the world was the old and the political influence often extends its influence to neighboring countries in east Asia and west Africa. Heart and to the south and Puntland, Somalia. The ancient Egyptians firing over their land Kemet Kimmitt any black earth that provide them with the Nile silt was also called rational Deshret any ground reference for the color red desert sands Bhaalte burn under the sun. The abundance of the flood water has made them Ivimon network of irrigation and agriculture and manufactured boats for navigation, transport and fishing river. And gave them the land, jewels, precious metals such as gold, silver and copper. And were exchanging goods with neighboring countries. The history of Egypt we find start since 8000 BC. M. In the south-eastern Egypt, when the Sudanese border, north-east. The people who came to her sponsors and this area was a magnet where he was the plains Hchachep grazing and climate was hospitable and by lakes of water from monsoon rains. The monuments show that they were settlers there grazing livestock. They left after them in large buildings 6000 BC. M.
The agriculture began in the town of Badari six 5000 BC. M. The Fayum settlers before planting Badari thousand years. The city of Mermaid in the Delta on its western border since 4500 BC. M. Bhutto appeared in the city of pottery decorated pottery is different from the model in Upper Egypt. There was a difference between the ancient Egyptians between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt in doctrine and burial of the dead and architecture. The King Menes in 3100 BC. M. And united the two countries (of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt). He puts on his head Thrones white symbolizes the face of tribal and red for the sea. And make the King of Memphis Memphis Mena united capital and was located west of the Nile at Giza and Abydos royal tomb, which moved to Saqqara during the era of the Old Kingdom. See: Al-Ahram. The population of Egypt before the Dynastic Period (5000 BC. M. - 3000 BC. M.) Currently only hundreds of thousands of people and during the Old Kingdom (2575 BC. M. - 2134 BC. M.) Numbered about 2 million people during the Middle Kingdom (2040 BC. M. -- 1640 BC. m.) increased in number and during the New Kingdom (1550 BC. m. - 1070 BC. m.) reached Aladdinm 3 - 4 million people. In the Hellenistic period (332 BC. M .- 30 BC. M.) Reached No. 7 million people. Egypt and then entered the Roman era. The Egyptians adjacent river. Because it was an agricultural community of Memphis and a good two important when each of the capital. And education and was independent writing in ancient Egypt and the writing and reading stretched between a small proportion of the ruling elite or clerks in the administrative apparatus. The sons of the royal family and the ruling elite learn to minors. And the rest of the people were taught in schools or temples Mounzul. The education of girls was confined to reading and writing at home. The teachers were strict and use beatings. The sofas school learning to read and write and write letters and other texts. The manuscripts were kept in the house of life, a house conservation in each temple and more like a library. He was educated in ancient Egypt studying mathematics, geometry, fractions and combine and medicine. I found books in internal medicine, surgery and treatment, pharmaceutical and veterinary dentistry. All of the copy books, including literature and religious texts.
The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 during the French campaign and had carved in 196 BC. M. Accordingly, three languages and hieroglyphic Aldemutkip (Coptic and are intended to modern language to the ancient Egyptians) and the Hellenic. At the time of discovery of the mystery language of the Aevsr for hundreds of years. Because the first two languages were at the time of the dead languages. Until the world was France's Jean-Francois Champollion, and interpreted such language after the matched text Hellenic and other hieroglyphic texts. This indicates that these languages were prevalent during the rule of the Ptolemaic Greeks to Egypt for more than 150 years. The hieroglyphic religious language spoken in the temples and demotic language was the language of popular writing and the language of Hellenistic rulers, the Greeks. Was the glorification of the content writing Pharaoh Msroinjazath good for the priests and people of Egypt. And have been written by priests to public and private reading of senior Egyptian and the ruling class. Champollion was able to decode hieroglyphics in 1822 paving the way acquainted with the ancient Egyptian civilization and decryption cracking cases and the translation of sciences after the revival of the language after Muatha over the centuries. The hieroglyphic and Obhaditha considering anyone who wants to study Egyptology. It then developed hieroglyphic of Heratkip Dimutkip and then to the Coptic.
The Ancient Egyptians, their calendar time since the early stage and was based on the Mlahzanhm of the sun and the stars, heaven and dates of the Nile flood every year. They have used their calendar to record historical events and festivals and scheduling decisions Norik property. It was the first attempt to make a calendar in 8000 BC. M. When making the stone circles (see: Avpere. And Stonehenge) in the southern-most corner of the west of Egypt now. It was used to observe the stars and their movements. They divided the 24-hour day (12 day and 12 night) and week 10 days month, 3 weeks or 30 days. Year and 12 months. It was divided into three chapters, each chapter 4 months ago. The year was equivalent to 360 days. The ancient Egyptians, then add 5 days every day of this five-day festival recalls the birth of a god. And this year will be full Pharaonic 365 days. It is almost close to the solar year is, except for a quarter of the difference in the day of each calendar year did not know well on every 4 years.
The ancient Egyptians Balgdid of innovative creations and stunning the world both in the mummification (article), music, sculpture, literature, painting, architecture and drama. After days of consolidation Mbena religious belief have become a feature of official pluralism valuable gods and theology and the environment have an impact on religious thought and worship, where the Pharaonic gods taken human or animal forms, or a combination of them. These forms Jsdwiha ancient Egyptian forces of nature and its elements. And the formation of myths and stories about their gods and their world to understand the complex interactions in the universe around them. Religious belief played a big role in their lives and have had their impact on the arts and thoughts about life in the Hereafter and the idea of the Baath and the Resurrection and relationships Bgamanm. The art Kalnan bilateral dimensions and drawing on the walls of temples and tombs and coffins, the dead and the caskets and papyrus. The Egyptian artists Iggsmon personal photos Bmlamhaa expressive Ttin rate of time and space in these pictures vBSEO Klodomn through hieroglyphic drawings that accompany and be part of the wonderful work of art. The owner of the statue's name is placed on al Qaeda or next to it.
And the pyramids we find the grandeur of architecture reflects the ancient Egyptians. This wild huge tombs have four triangular walls converge at the point of the summit of the hill which represents the primitive origin of life in myths of creation, or represent the strong sunlight. They have built about 100 pyramid as a rest house and to their rulers after death. The square-shaped temple toward the east-west line sunrise and sunset. The ancient Egyptians believed that the model of the temple built by humans can be a natural environment suitable for the gods. Greeks have benefited from the ancient Egyptians in sculpture, architecture, philosophy and theology (see: Amenhotep). . The ancient Egyptians have been masters of art works of stone, metal and glass-making and the normal color. Exploration revealed the effects of pre-history era in Egypt since 6000 BC. M. The presence of archaeological sites of southern Egypt on the border with Sudan, where they were found to burial places and the establishment of Aloebad, ceremonies, and graves of the cattle, which proves that consecrated. The graves were found human crafts, weapons and utensils dating to this era, which indicates the existence of the doctrine of after death. The doctrine is based on the ancient Egyptians represented the sun in the doctrine of Re and Horus and the furnace and Stative. And the moon represented the doctrine of berry and Khonsu and the earth, represented in the doctrine of pocket. The sky goddess Nut and Shuo Menhit god of wind and humidity. Isis, Osiris, and the rulers of the underworld. Most of these revolved around the gods mythology. And became Amun-Re, after the merger are the doctrine of Amun - Ra as king of the gods.
There was a local worship the gods of region-specific in Egypt. The king was the high priest practiced rituals of the festivals and the priests were performed in the days to the regular temples. The common people to Aidechlunha only to serve. The Egyptians are interested in life after death and the living graves and Izinunha Ejehzona and pictures and furniture. They were mummified after death care (article) Dead. They were put in coffins amulets and talisman around the mummy. They write texts on magic or fabric on the walls of the cemetery and papyrus to bury him. This was the text to protect and guide him in the underworld.
In ancient Egypt the king is the absolute ruler and spiritual leader and the link between people and gods. He was supported by the minister and the administrative system, followed by the magicians. The king was commander of the army and his commanders and soldiers from the army of the Egyptians in the age of five and twenty to forty years. The sentence was genetically between children in most of the time, except Horemheb (1319 BC. M.), Who was a leader and his successor, Ramses I, who was not of royal blood. Rarely was a woman who ruled Egypt except Hatshepsut, who ruled in the family of 18 after the death of her husband Tuthmosis II in 1479 BC. M. And shared governance with Thutmose III. The Egyptians believe that God the King and King god. After his death lead him to remain ritual god. It was usually nicknamed the owner and the King of the Two Lands of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt (Nile Delta in the north and the south valley. The people of Egypt's economy on agriculture dependent on the Nile, which was Imdmsr water and crop varieties such as grain, particularly barley, wheat, fruits and vegetables. Mmazm and agricultural land was owned by the king and the temples. The sweep means irrigation After the flood recedes. I have discovered many reserved mummies were found in all parts of the world in all continents where they follow mummification mummification all continents. and the word origin of the word hieroglyphics mummy "mm", which means wax or tar, which was used in mummification processes. was derived from late